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  1. Setting Out

    The hides are approaching the time when they must be dried out. The setting out process puts them into the proper condition for drying. It is a multi-purpose operation, which smooths and stretches the hides, while compressing and squeezing out excess moisture. The type of machine used is very similar to the shaving machine except that the blades on the cylinder are shaped so as not to produce any cutting action.

  2. Wet Toggling

    Wet toggling is one of the drying method that is used to create soft tumbled leathers. Hides are kept in a stretched position on perforated frames by means of clips called toggles. The frames are then turned onto their side before the operators slide them into multiple channels in the drying over.

  3. Vacuum Drying

    Vaccuum drying is used to create smooth tight leathers. In the vaccuum dryer, the wet hides are smoothed onto a heated stainless steel plate, then covered by a perforated steel plate which is covered by a felt or cloth. A vaccuum is pulled which extracts water vapor from leather.

  4. Hang Drying

    Hang drying is the simplest method of drying. It is performed by draping the hide over a horizontal shaft and letting it dry as you would do with clothes on a line.

  5. Conditioning

    After the drying processes, the leather must be conditioned and mechanically softened before it is processed further. Conditioning is the first step in adjusting the final temper.

  6. Staking

    The leather is then staked to make it pliable. Softness can be controlled by adjusting the pressure and speed setting on the machine.

  7. Buffing

    The buffing operation can be used to create a “nubuck” type leather or to remove light defects. Light sanding leaves a clean, smooth surface ready for the subsequent finishing operation.